Support for Extracellular Vesicles

Recognizing the power of extracellular vesicles in early cancer detection is a recent phenomenon. A number of important papers have captured the scientific community’s excitement about the potential of EVs.

Snapshot: Extracellullar Vesicles

Cell – 2020

Cocozza F, Grisard E, et al.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are structures released into their environment by all cells. They are delimited by a lipid-bilayer and contain components from the cells that release them. EVs have been identified as a means, for the secreting cell, of disposing harmful or useless intracellular components but also as important mediators of communication with other cells.

Modeling EV kinetics for use in early cancer detection

Advanced Biosystems – 2020

Ferguson S, Weissleder R

Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles represent promising biomarkers for monitoring cancers. It is predicted that emerging single EV methods will allow blood-based detection of cancers of <1mm in humans.

Profiling surface proteins on individual exosomes using a proximity barcoding assay

Nature Communications – 2019

Wu D, Yan J, et al.

Exosomes from different sources are characterized by the presence of specific combinations of surface proteins and their abundance, allowing exosomes to be separately quantified in mixed samples to serve as markers for tissue-specific engagement in disease.

Exploiting the message from cancer: The diagnostic value of EVs for clinical applications

Experimental and Mol. Medicine – 2019

Kosaka N, Kogure A, et al.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), which contain various proteins, including membrane-bound proteins, and RNAs, including mRNA and long/short noncoding RNAs, have emerged as ideal targets for liquid biopsy.

Characterization of single microvesicles in plasma from glioblastoma patients

Neuro-Oncology – 2019

Fraser K, Jo A, et al.

Results indicate that single microvesicle analysis is likely necessary to identify rare tumoral microvesicle populations, and the single vesicle analytical technique used here can be applied to both microvesicle and exosome fractions without the need for their separation from each other. These studies form the basis for using single EV analyses for cancer diagnostics.

Extracellular vesicles in cancer – implications for future improvements in cancer care

Nature Reviews/Clin. Oncology – 2018

Xu R, Rai A, et al.

EVs carry molecules such as oncoproteins and oncopeptides, RNA, lipids, and DNA fragments from donor to recipient cells, initiating profound phenotypic changes in the tumor microenvironment. Emerging evidence suggests that EVs have crucial roles in cancer development, including premetastatic niche formation and metastasis.

Multiplexed profiling of single extracellular vesicles

ACS Nano – 2018

Lee K, Fraser K, et al.

The relative abundance and composition of EV proteins serves as a fingerprint that indicates their cellular origin. Importantly, single EV analyses will enable molecular identification of tumor-derived EV even in a vast biological background of host cell-derived EVs. We believe that the platform studied will be a useful analytical tool for studying different types of extracellular vesicles across different cell types at the single-particle level.

New technologies for analysis of extracellular vesicles

Chemical Reviews – 2018

Shao H, Im H, et al.

EVs are now increasingly recognized as important vehicles of intercellular communication and circulating biomarkers for disease diagnoses and prognosis. Recent advances in the field are expected to have far-reaching impact in both basic and translational studies.

Support for Single EVs

Analyzing single extracellular vesicles (EVs) is a cutting-edge approach for the early detection of cancer with tremendous promise. Researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School have published a mathematical model showing single EV technologies may achieve blood-based detection of the earliest stages of cancer—detecting tumors smaller than the tip of a pencil.